ISSN : 2287-5174(Online)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.9787/KJBS.2012.44.4.406
Influence of Allelic Variations of Glutenin and Puroindloine on Flour Composition, Dough Rheology and Quality of White Salted Noodles from Korean Wheat Cultivars
White salted noodles have been popular in Korea, where a soft and elastic texture and bright color are generally favored. The influence of flour properties is greater on noodles than in bread because of the simple formula and processing of white salted noodles (Huo 2001). Wheat flour with about 10% protein content is acceptable for use in the preparation of white salted noodles, and the protein content is highly influenced by the environment. Although protein quality as related to bread making has been extensively studied and well established, there is little information regarding the protein quality requirements of wheat for the production of white salted noodles. The protein content of wheat is significantly related to parameters of noodle processing and the quality of cooked noodles, especially lightness and hardness (Nagao et al. 1977, Oh et al. 1985, Toyokawa et al. 1989, Baik et al. 1994, Yun et al. 1997, Park et al. 2003, Zhang et al. 2007). Protein content and protein quality related variables such as sedimentation volume and mixograph mixing time, also exhibited a significant relationship with cooked noodle texture (Baik et al. 1994, Yun et al. 1997, Park et al. 2003).
Protein quality is mainly influenced by glutenin compositions, including high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). HMW-GS are encoded by Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 on the long arm of chromosome 1 (Payne & Lawrence 1983). LMW-GS are encoded by Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 located on the short arm of chromosome 1 (Jackson et al. 1983). Wheat varieties with good qualities for bread baking might require allelic subunits Glu-A1a or b, Glu-B1b or i and Glu-D1d on the Glu-1 locus (Shewry et al. 1992). The effects of Glu-3 alleles on dough properties and bread quality have been reported in many previous studies (Gupta et al. 1989, 1991, Metakovsky et al. 1990, Branlard et al. 2001, Luo et al. 2001, Eagles et al. 2002, Nagamine et al. 2003, Maucher et al. 2009). However, little information is available regarding the effect of Glu-1 and Glu-3 alleles on white salted noodles.
Hard wheat generally produces a coarser particle size of flour and a greater amount of mechanically damaged starch than does soft wheat. Therefore, hard wheat flours are generally used for breads and other yeast-leavened foods, whereas soft wheats are preferred for noodles and cookies. Grain hardness is controlled by the Ha locus on chromosome 5D (Symes 1965), and genes coding for puroindolines, major components of water-soluble proteins surrounding starch granules, are tightly linked to the Ha locus (Sourdille et al. 1996). Soft wheat contains both Pina-D1a and Pinb- D1a genotypes, and hard wheat contains an alteration in either the Pina-D1b or Pinb-D1b coding sequence that results in hard grain texture (Giroux & Morris 1997, 1998). Genotypes with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b or Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a were prevalently found in hard wheat germplasms (Morris et al. 2001, Cane et al. 2004; Pickering & Bhave 2007). Hard wheat carrying the Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotypes showed higher flour yield, protein and damaged starch content, water absorption and bread loaf volume than did hard wheat with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b (Giroux et al. 2000, Martin et al. 2001, Nagamine et al. 2003, Cane et al. 2004, Chen et al. 2007). The noodle score for dry white Chinese noodles prepared from wheat flours with Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a was higher than those of Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b and Pina-D1a/ Pinb-D1a (Chen et al. 2007).
The Korean wheat breeding program has focused on improving grain yield and early maturation, and about 30 cultivars have been developed since the 1970s. Currently, quality improvement associated with the noodle-making process and texture of cooked noodles is receiving much attention by wheat breeders in Korea. Recently, there have been attempts to identify biochemical markers related to end-use quality and to characterize and select breeding lines in Korean wheat breeding programs. However, information about the influence of allelic variations in glutenin and puroindolines of flour compositions, noodle processing and texture of cooked noodles are not available in Korean wheat. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of allelic variations, including HMW-GS, LMW-GS and puroindolines, on the physicochemical properties of flour and the quality of white salted noodles made from Korean wheat cultivars in order to provide useful information for improving wheat quality in Korean wheat breeding programs.et al.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty-six Korean wheat cultivars, which are representative wheat cultivars originated in the 1970s, were sown in randomized complete blocks with 3 replicates in the Upland Crop Experimental Farm of National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration (Korea) in 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 on 50% of clay loam soil. The seeds were sown in late October and each plot consisted of three 4.0 m rows spaced 25 cm apart and plots were combine-harvested in mid June in both years. Fertilizer was applied at 5:7:5 kg/10a (N:P:K) before sowing and weeds, insects and disease were stringently controlled. No supplemental irrigation was applied. Mean temperature (9.3℃) of these two years was higher than that of an average year (8.8℃), and average precipitation (434 mm) was similar to that of an average year (438 mm). Grain from each plot was dried using forced air driers and bulked from replications to provide grain for quality analysis.
Glutenin subunit compositions were determined according to the protocol of Singh et al. (1991) with some modifications adopted by Peña et al. (2004). HMW-GS were classified using the nomenclature of Payne & Lawrence (1983). Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles were expressed using the nomenclature of Gupta & Shepherd (1990). Allelic variations of Glu-B3 were determined by combining their corresponding allelic variations of gliadin according to the nomenclature of Jackson et al. (1996). Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaf tissue (100 mg) using the Genomic DNA prep kit (Solgent Co., Seoul, Korea) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The allelic variations of puroindolines were determined by the procedure described by Gautier et al. (1994).
The hardness index of grain was determined using the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) 4100 (Perten Instruments AB, Sweden) according to the Approved Method 55-31 (AACC 2000). Wheat grain was milled using a Bühler experimental mill, according to AACC Approved Methods 26-10. Wheat grain (2 kg) was conditioned overnight to 15% moisture content and then milled with a feed rate of 100 g/min and roll settings of 8 and 5 in break rolls and 4 and 2 in reduction rolls. Flour yield was calculated as the proportion of break and reduction flours to the total products. The particle size distribution of flour was measured by an LS13320 multi-wavelength laser particle size analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Inc. USA).
Moisture, protein and ash contents of wheat flour were determined according to Approved Methods 44-15A, 46-30 and 08-01 (AACC 2000), respectively. The determination of damaged starch content was conducted following the procedure of Gibson et al. (1992) using an enzymatic assay kit (MegaZyme Pty., Ltd., Australia). The SDS-sedimentation test was performed according to the procedure of Axford et al. (1979). Optimum water absorption, mixing time and mixing tolerance of wheat flour were determined using a 10 g mixograph (National Mfg., USA) according to the approved method, 54-40A (AACC 2000). The maximum dough height during fermentation was determined by the Chopin Rheofermentometer F3 (Groupe Tripette et Renaud Villeneuve-La-Garenne, Cedex, France) according to the procedure of Czuchajowska and Pomeranz (1993).
White salted noodles
White salted noodles were prepared with optimum water absorption of noodle dough according to the procedure of Park & Baik (2002). Commercial wheat flour for noodle making, which requires 35% absorption to produce uniform, smooth and nonsticky dough, was used as a reference for comparison to other flours during the determination of optimum water absorption for noodle making. Flour (100 g, 14% moisture basis) was mixed with a predetermined amount of sodium chloride solution in a pin mixer (National Mfg. Co., USA) for 4 min at a head speed of 86 rpm. The concentration of sodium chloride solution used for making noodles with different absorptions was adjusted to produce a 2.0% result in the noodle dough. Dough was passed through the rollers of a noodle machine (Ohtake Noodle Machine Mfg. Co., Japan) at 65 rpm with a 3 mm gap; dough was folded and pressed between the sheeting rollers. The folding and sheeting were repeated twice. The dough sheet was rested for 1 hr and then subjected to three additional presses at progressively decreasing gaps of 2.40, 1.85 and 1.30 mm. After the final pressing, the thickness of the dough sheet was immediately measured by a micrometer dial thickness gauge (Peacock Dial Thickness Gauge G, Ozaki Mfg. Co., Japan). The rest of the dough sheet was cut with no. 12 cutting rollers into noodle strands of about 30 cm in length with a 0.3 × 0.2 cm cross section.
Raw noodles (20 g) were cooked for 18 min in 500 ml of boiling distilled water and then rinsed with cold water. Two replicates of cooked noodles were evaluated by texture profile analysis (TPA) using a TA-XT2 texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, England) within 5 min after cooking. A set of five strands of cooked noodles was placed parallel on a flat metal plate and compressed crosswise twice to 70% of the original height using a 3.175 mm metal blade at a speed of 1.0 mm/sec. From force-time curves of the TPA, hardness, springiness and cohesiveness were determined according to the description of Park et al. (2003).
Statistical analysis of the data was performed by SAS software (SAS Institute, NC, USA) using Fisher’s least significant difference test (LSD), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pair-wise t-test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05, unless otherwise specified. The pair-wise t test at P = 0.05 was conducted to compare means when F tests were significant. All analyses were determined at least in duplicate, and all were averaged.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Allelic compositions of glutenin and puroindolines in Korean wheat cultivars
The composition and frequency of both glutenin and puroindoline alleles of 26 Korean wheat cultivars are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. In HMW-GS compositions, three alleles were identified at each Glu-1 loci. Glu-A1c, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1f were the most frequently found alleles at the respective loci, and their frequencies were 57.7%, 65.4% and 65.4%, respectively. High frequencies of these HMW-GS alleles were also observed in Japanese wheat genotypes (Nakamura et al. 1999). Glu- A1c, Glu-B1B and Glu-B1c alleles are frequently found in Argentinean, French, Chinese landraces and US wheat cultivars (Redaelli et al. 1997, Branlard et al. 2003, Shan et al. 2007, Lerner et al. 2009, Li et al. 2009). Glu-D1d is a predominant allele in US hard wheat and Australian and Argentinean wheat genotypes (Eagles et al. 2002, Shan et al. 2007, Lerner et al. 2009) but is uncommon in Chinese, Japanese and US soft wheat genotypes (Redaelli et al. 1997, Nakamura et al. 1999, Li et al. 2009). Six Korean wheat cultivars, including Alchan, Hanbaek, Keumkang, Jonong, Jokyung and Tapdong, exhibited a 10 point Glu-1 score as the sum of the assigned scores of the identified Glu-1 alleles (Payne 1987).
Table 1. Allelic compositions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines in 26 Korean wheat cultivars.
Table 2. Frequency of alleles for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines in 26 Korean wheat cultivars.
In LMW-GS, Glu-D3a, Glu-B3d and Glu-A3d were the dominant alleles in Korean wheat cultivars, with frequencies of 65.5%, 61.5% and 50.0%, respectively. Glu-A3a is frequently found in Chinese landraces; Glu-A3c in Australian, Argentinean and US hard wheat; and Glu-A3a and Glu-A3d in French wheat genotypes (Eagles et al. 2002, Branlard et al. 2003, Shan et al. 2007, Lerner et al. 2009, Li et al. 2009). In allelic variations of puroindoline, nine Korean wheat cultivars had Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a genotypes; 14 cultivars had Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1b; three cultivars carried Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1a. The prevalence of Pinb- D1b was also reported in Australian, Chinese, European and North American wheat germplasms (Lillemo & Morris 2000, Morris et al. 2001, Cane et al. 2004, Xia et al. 2005, Pickering & Bhave 2007). The vast majority of hard wheat genotypes in the CIMMYT breeding program, however, carry the Pina-D1b allele (Lillemo et al. 2006).
Effects of allelic variations of glutenin and puroindoline on physical properties of flour
Year, genotype and their interactions significantly influenced flour characteristics, dough rheology and quality of white salted noodles from Korean wheat cultivars (Table 3). These results were agreed with previous studies (Lang et al. 1998, Habernicht et al. 2002, Souza et al. 2004, Guttieri et al. 2005). The variations in average of particle size of flour, ash content of flour, noodle dough sheet properties and texture of cooked noodles were significantly changed under different cultural environments in Korean wheat cultivars. SDS-sedimentation volume and dough rheology, however, were significantly influenced by genotype rather than production environment. SDS-sedimentation volume and dough rheology were relatively independent of protein content, although these characteristics were influenced by protein content. These results indicated SDS-sedimentation volume and dough rheology appeared to be more stable across production environments in Korea. The greater variations of genotype and environment than genotype by-environment interaction were also found in noodle dough sheet and texture of cooked noodles from Korean wheat cultivars. Similar results were found by Souza et al. (2004), which the genotype by-environment interaction, while occasionally significant, is less important than the main effects of genotype and environment for most noodle quality measurements.
Table 3. Analysis of variance for flour characteristics, dough rheology and quality of white salted noodles from 26 Korean wheat cultivars.
Variations in Glu-1, Glu-3 and Pin-D1 alleles produced significant effects on grain hardness, flour yield, particle size and damaged starch content in wheat flours (Table 4). Variation in grain hardness was predominantly determined by Pinb-D1 and Glu-B1 alleles, and their contributions were estimated to be 48.1 and 30.2% in 2006/2007 season and 48.9 and 28.8% in 2007/2008 season, respectively. Wheat cultivars with Pinb-D1b had a higher average hardness index than those cultivars possessing Pinb-D1a. Three cultivars carrying the Pina-D1b allele had a higher hardness index (68.07) than 14 cultivars with the Pinb-D1b allele (60.70), in agreement with previous reports (Giroux et al., 2000; Martin et al., 2001; Cane et al., 2004; Eagles et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007).
Table 4. Grain hardness, flour yield and flour characteristics of 26 Korean wheat cultivars grouped by allele for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines.
Cultivars carrying Glu-B1b exhibited a lower hardness index than those with Glu-B1c or Glu-B1f because cultivars with these alleles also carried the Pina-D1b or Pinb-D1b allele. Wheat cultivars with Glu-D1a exhibited a higher hardness index than cultivars with other alleles at the Glu-D1 locus because those with Glu-D1a also carried the Pinb-D1b allele. Glu-B3, Pin-D1, Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 contributed to 28.9, 27.1, 23.8 and 17.0% of the variation in 2006/2007 season and 32.3, 25.0, 22.8 and 14.0% of the variation in 2007/2008 season for flour yield, respectively. Genotypes carrying Pinb-D1b exhibited higher flour yield than the Pinb-D1a genotype. Hard Australian, Chinese, CIMMY and US wheat genotypes carrying Pinb-D1b exhibited a higher flour yield than those with Pina-D1b (Giroux et al. 2000, Martin et al. 2001, Cane et al. 2004). However, there was no significant difference in flour yield between Korean wheat cultivars with Pina-D1b or Pinb-D1b genotypes. Wheat cultivars carrying the Glu-A1b, Glu-B1f and Glu-B3b alleles exhibited relatively higher flour yield than those cultivars carrying other alleles at the same locus.
Glu-B1, Glu-D1, Glu-B3, Pina-D1 and Pinb-D1 alleles contributed more than 11.0% to the variation in average of particle size of flour. Contribution of Glu-A1 for variation in average of particle size of flour was significantly in 2006/2007 season (17.4%), but its contribution was not significant in 2007/2008 season (4.4%). Cultivars carrying Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a showed a smaller average particle size of wheat flour (73.83 and 70.97 μm, respectively) than Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1b (93.75 and 80.69 μm, respectively). Cultivars carrying Glu-B1b and Glu-D1f exhibited a much smaller average particle size of wheat flour than those carrying other alleles at Glu-1 loci. Japanese wheat cultivars with Glu-D1f produced fine flours compared to wheat with other alleles at the Glu-D1 locus (Nakamura et al. 1990, Oda et al. 1992). Glu-B3d and Glu-B3i produced a coarser particle size of wheat flour than Glu-B3b and Glu-B3h.
The variation of ash content was contributed by Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Pina-D1 and Pinb-D1 alleles but their contributions were differently influenced by year. Glu-A1 and Pina-D1 alleles contributed to 17.2 and 14.5% of the variation in 2006/2007 season, respectively, and Glu-B1 and Pinb-D1 alleles contributed to 11.6 and 32.7% in 2007/2008, respectively. This result indicates that the ash content of flour is influenced by factors other than glutenin and grain hardness, such as mineral or pigments of wheat flours. Soft wheats, which contain Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles, exhibited a fine flour particle size, lower ash and damaged starch content and brighter flour color than hard wheats with Pina-D1b or Pinb-D1b alleles (Bettege & Morris 2000, Nagamine et al. 2003, Chen et al. 2007).
The contributions of Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 alleles on the variation in damaged starch content were more than 17.7% in both years. The variation of damaged starch content was contributed by Glu-B1 and Pina-D1 alleles in 2006/2007 season and by Glu-D1 alleles in 2007/2008 season. Cultivars carrying Glu-B1f, Glu-D1a and Glu-B3b produced higher damaged starch content than other alleles. Pinb-D1b also exhibited higher damaged starch content (3.25%) than Pinb- D1a (2.73%).
Effects of allelic variations of glutenin and puroindoline on dough rheological properties
Both Glu-1 and Glu-3 alleles significantly affected the variations in protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume and dough rheological properties of flour in Korean wheat cultivars (Table 5). Glu-B3 alleles mainly explained the variation of protein content cultivated in both 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 seasons. Glu-B1 and Pina-D1 alleles were responsible for 13.4 and 14.8% in 2006/2007 season, respectively and Glu-D1 alleles were responsible for 20.6% in 2007/2008. Cultivars carrying Glu-B3d and Glu-B1b exhibited lower protein content than those carrying other alleles at Glu-B3 and Glu-B1 loci. Wheat cultivars with Glu-D1a exhibited higher protein content (12.25%) than other alleles at the Glu-D1 locus (< 11.66%). Pinb-D1b also showed a higher damaged starch content (3.25%) than Pinb-D1a (2.73%).
Table 5. Dough rheological properties of 26 Korean wheat cultivars grouped by allele for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines.
Glu-D1, Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 alleles primarily explained the variation in the SDS-sedimentation volume. Glu-A1 alleles were also responsible for 19.6% in 2006/2007 season. Cultivars carrying Glu-A1c, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1f exhibited a lower SDS-sedimentation volume than other alleles at the Glu-1 loci. Liu et al. (2005) reported that Glu-A1a is associated with a higher protein content and SDS-sedimentation volume than other alleles at the Glu-A1 locus. Genotypes of Chinese wheat carrying Glu-B1b and Glu-D1d had higher SDS-sedimentation volumes than Glu-B1c and Glu-D1a alleles (Liu et al. 2005, He et al. 2005). Cultivars with Glu- B3b and Glu-B3h exhibited a higher SDS-sedimentation volume (52.75 and 51.20 ml, respectively) than those with Glu-B3d and Glu-B3i (32.67 and 36.38 ml, respectively). Chinese wheat genotypes with Glu-A3e had higher protein content and a lower SDS-sedimentation volume than those genotypes with other alleles at the Glu-A3 locus (He et al. 2005). Maucher et al. (2009) also reported that Glu-A3d and Glu-B3d produced a higher SDS-sedimentation volume than other alleles, although there was no difference between Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci in their contributions to protein content.
Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 alleles mainly explained the variation in optimum water absorption and mixing time of mixograph, respectively. Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 alleles also primarily explained the variation in maximum dough height during fermentation. Glu-A1 was responsible for 11.7% of the variation in optimum absorption on the mixograph in 2006/2007 season. Cultivars carrying Glu-B1b exhibited lower optimum water absorption than other alleles at the Glu-B1 locus. Genotypes with Glu-A1c exhibited a shorter mixing time on the mixograph and lower maximum dough height than those with other alleles at the Glu-A1 locus. Glu-D1d exhibited a longer mixing time on the mixograph and higher maximum dough height than other alleles at the Glu-D1 locus. Shewry et al. (1992) proposed that Glu-A1a/b, Glu-B1b/i and Glu-D1d are required for good quality bread because these alleles have stronger influences on gluten strength than other alleles at the Glu-1 loci. Liu et al. (2005) reported that Glu-D1 accounted for mixing properties in Chinese bread wheat genotypes, and Glu-D1d induced a longer mixing time than Glu-D1a. He et al. (2005) also reported that the contributions of Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1d to dough property parameters were significantly higher than those of their counterpart allelic variations at Glu-1 loci in Chinese wheat genotypes.
Glu-B3 and Glu-A3 alleles mainly explained the variation in optimum water absorption and mixing time of mixograph, respectively. In 2007/2008, Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles were responsible for 15.1 and 20.0% of the variation in maximum dough height, respectively. Glu-B3 loci were also responsible for 14.4% of the variation in mixing time of the mixograph in 2006/2007 season. Allelic variation in the Glu-D3 locus had no significant influence on the rheological properties of dough, which agrees with the result of Maucher et al. (2009). Cultivars carrying Glu-B3h showed higher optimum water absorption on the mixograph than those cultivars carrying other alleles. The effects of Glu-A3 alleles on dough rheology were ranked as Glu-A3d > Glu-A3c > Glu-A3e with regard to mixing time on the mixograph and Glu-A3c > Glu-A3d > Glu-A3e for maximum dough height. The effect of the Glu-A3d allele on dough strength was greater than those of the other alleles. The negative effect of Glu-A3e on dough rheological characteristics, including mixing properties on the mixograph, dough strength and extensibility, has been reported in previous studies (Gupta et al. 1989, 1991, Metakovsky et al. 1990, Branlard et al. 2001, Eagles et al. 2002, Liu et al. 2005, He et al. 2005, Maucher et al. 2009).
Korean wheat cultivars carrying Glu-B3h produced a higher maximum dough height because they also possess the Glu-D1d allele, with the exception of Joeun. These cultivars are also high in protein content and SDS-sedimentation volume. Cultivars carrying Glu-B3i had a shorter mixing time on the mixograph and lower maximum dough height than those cultivars carrying other alleles. Peña et al. (2004) reported that the effects of the Glu-B3 locus on gluten strength could be ranked as Glu-B3d > Glu-B3b, Glu-D3f and Glu-B3g > Glu-B3i and Glu-D3h in wheat genotypes carrying with Glu-D1d allele. Genotypes of Chinese and CIMMYT wheat genotypes carrying Glu-B3d also exhibited a longer mixing time than those genotypes carrying other alleles (He et al. 2005, Liu et al. 2005, Maucher et al. 2009). In 16 Korean wheat cultivars carrying the Glu-B3d allele, 13 that also carried the Glu-D1f allele had a lower SDS-sedimentation volume and a shorter mixing time than wheat cultivars carrying other alleles at the Glu-D1 locus.
The Pinb-D1 alleles mainly explained the variation in the rheological properties of dough. Pina-D1 alleles were only responsible for 8.7% of the variation in optimum water absorption of the mixograph in 2006/2007 season. Cultivars carrying Pinb-D1a had lower optimum water absorption, mixing time on the mixograph and maximum dough height than those cultivars carrying the Pinb-D1b allele. These results agree with previous reports (Cane et al. 2004, Eagles et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2007).
Effects of allelic variations of glutenin and puroindoline on quality parameters of white salted noodles
Glu-1 and Glu-3 alleles significantly influenced variations in the characteristics of the noodle dough sheet and tex tural parameters of cooked noodles prepared from Korean wheat flours (Table 6). Glu-B3 alleles primarily explained the variation in noodle dough properties. Pinb-D1 alleles also explained the variation in thickness of the noodle dough sheet. Cultivars carrying Glu-B1b, Glu-D1f, Glu-B3d and Pinb-D1a exhibited a higher water absorption and thinner thickness (> 35.00% and < 1.77 mm, respectively) than those cultivars carrying other alleles (< 34.25% and > 1.78 mm, respectively). Cultivars with these alleles also produced a fine average particle size of flour and had low damaged starch content, protein content and SDSsedimentation volume (Tables 3 and 4). Genotypes with Glu-D3a exhibited lower water absorption than those with other alleles at the Glu-D3 locus. Noodle thickness with Pina-D1a was less than that with Pina-D1b. Oh et al. (1985) reported that protein quality, damaged starch content, particle size distribution and arabinoxylan probably influence the optimum water absorption of noodle dough. Oh et al. (1986) also reported a negative relationship between protein content and optimum water absorption of noodle dough. Park & Baik (2002) reported that flours with low protein content and a low SDS sedimentation volume required more water to generate a uniform protein matrix and produce a suitable noodle sheet.
Table 6. Characteristics of noodle dough sheets and textural parameters of cooked white salted noodles of 26 Korean wheat cultivars grouped by allele for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines.
Glu-B3 alleles mainly were responsible for the variation of both hardness and springiness of cooked noodle. In 2006/2007 season, Glu-1 loci also significantly influenced on the variation of hardness of cooked noodles, Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 alleles were also responsible for the variation of cohesiveness of cooked noodles. No significant contributions of Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Pin-D1 alleles were found in texture of cooked noodles. Cultivars carrying Glu-B3h also exhibited an increased hardness of cooked noodles (5.10 N) compared to those cultivars carrying other alleles at the Glu-B3 locus (< 4.66 N). Genotypes with this allele also carried the Glu-A1a/b, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1d alleles (Table 1). These cultivars were high in protein content and SDSsedimentation volume (Table 5). The score of Glu-1 in previous studies correlated positively with hardness of cooked white salted noodles (Park et al. 2003, Ohm et al. 2006, 2008). He et al. (2005) reported that genotypes carrying Glu-A3d and Glu-B3d alleles exhibited medium to strong dough strength and produced a better quality of dry white Chinese noodles than those with other alleles.
This work was supported by a grant from the Next- Generation BioGreen 21 Program (Plant Molecular Breeding Center No. PJ008006), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
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