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Flavonoid Metabolic Engineering for Modification of Flower Color in Chrysanthemum
국화 꽃색 변경을 위한 플라보노이드 대사공학
Korean. J. Breed. Sci. 2018;50(4):351-363
Published online December 1, 2018
© 2018 Korean Society of Breeding Science.

Da-Hye Kim, Sangkyu Park, Bo-Ra Park, Jong-Yeol Lee, and Sun-Hyung Lim*
김다혜, 박상규, 박보라, 이종렬, 임선형*

National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, 54874, Republic of Korea
농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원
Correspondence to: E-mail:, Tel: +82-63-238-4615, Fax: +82-63-238-4604
Received August 20, 2018; Revised August 27, 2018; Accepted September 17, 2018.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In ornamental crops, the color and shape of flowers are one of the important traits. Generally, flower colors are determined by accumulating pigments such as carotenoids, flavonoids, and betalains. Among them, flavonoids are responsible for broad ranges of colors. Chrysanthemums are one of the most popular ornamental crops in the world, and there have been many efforts to change their flower color. In chrysanthemum flowers, cyanidin-based anthocyanin confers pink or red color, whereas terpenoid-based carotenoids are mainly responsible for yellow and green colors. However, blue colored chrysanthemums do not occur in nature. To date, there have been attempts to obtain blue or violet-colored chrysanthemum flowers through the introduction of a novel gene for accumulating delphinidin-based anthocyanins, while other studies have reported changing endogenous metabolites through the reconstruction of flavonoid biosynthesis. Since various transcription factors are involved in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, it is important to understand not only the structural genes, but also the transcription factors required for the modification of flavonoid-based flower color. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and its regulation, and review previous studies on the change in flower color through modification of flavonoid biosynthesis. This effort could be an important milestone in successfully achieving the modification of chrysanthemum flower color by means of plant biotechnology.
Keywords : Anthocyanin, Chrysanthemum, Flavonoid, Flower color, Metabolic engineering

December 2018, 50 (4)
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