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Selection of Wheat Germplasm in Korean Production Environments employing Agronomic Characteristics and Adaptation Analysis
밀 유전자원의 농업적 특성 및 적응성 분석을 통한 국내 재배환경에 적합한 유전자원 활용성 분석
Korean J. Breed. Sci. 2021;53(1):42-52
Published online March 1, 2021
© 2021 Korean Society of Breeding Science.

Yong Jin Lee1†, Jin Seok Yoon1†, Chon-Sik Kang2, Yu-Mi Choi3, Kyong Hee Joung4, and Yong Weon Seo1*

1Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea
2National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea
3National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Institute of Agricultural Science, RDA, Jeonju 54874, Republic of Korea
4Agricultural Product Research Department, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Jinju 52733, Republic of Korea
1고려대학교 생명과학대학, 2국립식량과학원, 3국립농업과학원 유전자원센터, 4경상남도 농업기술원
Correspondence to: (E-mail:, Tel: +82-2-3290-3005, Fax: +82-504-393-3117)
Author Contributions: Yong Jin Lee and Jin Seok Yoon have equal contribution, and considered as first authors.
Received February 1, 2021; Revised February 1, 2021; Accepted February 16, 2021.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The National Agrobiodiversity Center of the RDA, Korea, has more than 22,700 accessions of global wheat genetic resources, including Korean wheat cultivars and landraces. Despite the numerous efforts to develop high-quality, hard winter wheat, the employment of new genetic resources into Korean wheat breeding programs is still hampered by the different growing environments. To overcome this limitation, 200 germplasms that were screened using the Genebank Management System (GMS) were evaluated in three different regions in Korea. In the 2018–2019 trial, 55 lines that showed superior field performance and high protein content were selected from among the 200 germplasms. These lines were re-evaluated in the 2019–2020 trial, and 24 lines that had suitable traits for growth, grain yield, and grain protein content in three locations were finally selected. These winter wheat germplasms also showed high yield stability throughout the three different environments in Korea. Preliminary screening using GMS information, consecutive regional tests, and quality tests could be effective procedures for the development of hard winter wheat in Korea. Therefore, introduction breeding could be a favorable breeding method aiming to improve quality, where useful genetic resources are limited.
Keywords : hard winter wheat, genetic resources, adaptation, introduction breeding

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been one of the most cultivated and important cereal crops for human dietary in the world. As the increasing population, the adaptability and yield stability of wheat are essential prerequisites to meet wheat demand. Although wheat consumption is 32.4 kg per capita per year, self-sufficiency is only 1 to 2% in Korea (KOSIS 2019). Imported wheat flour is mainly consumed as noodles (fried, steamed, Chinese noodle), followed by bread, and cookies (MAFRA 2020). This situation highlights the importance of wheat breeding programs with the aim of increasing current production in Korea.

Wheat germplasms are valuable genetic resources to determine their potential impact on improving efficiency. Recently, the global climate change cause adverse effect on wheat development and production, and it emphasizes the need to use better adapted varieties of major crops and terrestrial crops as potential donors of useful genes (Gepts 2006, Khoury et al. 2014). However, the most cultivated crops have limited genetic diversity pools to continuous selective breeding (National Research Council 1993).

Introduction breeding leads to the development of superior wheat variety through crossing between elite variety and exotic (non-adaptive) germplasm (Rasmusson & Phillips 1997). This breeding strategy has resulted in high productivity, quality improvement as well as increased genetic diversities in the breeding populations. This cycle of introduction breeding can increase genetic vulnerability, such as the loss of abiotic- and biotic-resistance genes due to depletion of genetic diversity (Bonnin et al. 2014). Thus, monitoring of genetic diversity at the exact growing environment is necessary for the development of wheat cultivars.

Early maturity is one of the important agronomic traits in wheat breeding programs. The effects of early maturing wheat have led to advance such as early harvesting and protection of biotic and abiotic stresses (Poehlman & Sleper 1995). In Korea, the development of early maturity winter wheat cultivars has advantages of avoiding rainfall season and efficient double cropping system. As one of the multi-cropping methods, double cropping gives economic benefits which combined by the possibility of additional profits from a second crop on the same field within a single growing season (Borchers et al. 2014). Advances in technology such as early maturity variety development and no-till equipment can promote the adoption of dual crops and make them economically viable (Shapiro et al. 1992).

There are not many cultivars that meet the satisfactory quality criteria in Korea. Therefore, wheat growers have not enough opportunity for chose of variety. To overcome these problems, it is necessary to develop wheat varieties with improved end-use quality parameters. Introducing exotic wheat germplasms into our breeding program would be an alternative way of crossing breeding.

The grain quality of wheat is determined by a complex combination of various parameters. End-use quality is determined by hardness, protein quantity & quality, and dough characteristics. Wheat grain hardness is one of the major parameters to determine the type of wheat, and it is important for end-product quality in the flour industry (Bettge & Morris 2000). Wheat is classified as soft, hard, and very hard by the basis of grain hardness (Morris 2002). The puroindolines such as PINA and PINB represent the molecular genetic control of grain hardness reside at the Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5D (Bhave & Morris 2008). The types of hardness depend on the presence of both puroindoline genes or the presence of a null or mutated puroindoline genes, which are called the soft wheat and hard wheat, respectively (Martin et al. 2006, Morris 2002, Xia et al. 2008).

The gluten content makes up 85% of total protein content in the endosperm of wheat grain and affects the rheological and pasting properties. Wheat grain quality depends on its gluten properties, including the viscoelastic of wheat dough. Gluten components are polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins, and they are closely associated with bread-making quality (Dhaka & Khatkar 2015). Glutenins consist of high molecular weight-glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits (Rasheed et al. 2014). The HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs are located at Glu-1 loci and Glu-3 loci, respectively, which are crucial genetically fixed parameters in the process of bread making. For example, 5 + 10 subunit encoded at Glu-D1 have a positive effect, and 2 + 12 subunit encoded at Glu-D1 have a negative effect on bread making quality. Previous studies on the relationships between HMW-GS and LMW-GS have led to successful wheat breeding development (Anjum et al. 2007, Dhaka & Khatkar 2015, Gupta et al. 1994, Peña et al. 1994).

In this study, we selected 200 wheat germplasms with superior agronomic characteristics via the GMS (Germplasm Managing System) database. The wheat germplasms were investigated for the extent of genetic variability and correlations among agronomic traits, quality parameters and adaptability in three different locations of Korean from 2018 to 2020. Among 200 wheat genetic resources, we selected 55 wheat germplasm with superior agronomic traits, qualities, and adaptability. We evaluated the selected 55 germplasms in the same locations of Korea from 2019 to 2020, and 24 germplasms with superior field performances were selected. The obtained results would be useful for the wheat breeding programs aiming to introduce alien genetic resources in the breeding populations.

Materials and Methods

Plant materials

Total 200 wheat germplasms that were screened for optimum heading dates as well as HMW-GS score of 6-10 via GMS (Genebank Management System) were incorporated in this study (Table 1).

Table 1

Origins and developmental status of the wheat germplasms used in this study.

Originz Line developmental status Total

Landrace Breeding line Cultivar Unknown
AFG 2 2
ARG 1 1
AUS 1 1
AUT 1 1
BGR 2 1 3
CAN 2 2
CHN 17 30 18 65
COL 1 1
ETH 1 1
HUN 1 1
IND 3 3 6
ISR 1 1
ITA 1 1
JPN 3 3
MEX 1 35 32 68
MNG 1 1
PRK 5 5
RUS 1 1
UKR 1 1
USA 1 1 2
UZB 1 1
Unknown 32 32

Total 24 35 33 108 200

zCountry code. AFG, Afghanistan; ARG, Argentina; AUS, Australia; AUT, Austria; BGR, Bulgaria; CAN, Canada; CHN, China; COL, Colombia; ETH, Ethiopia; HUN, Hungary; IND, India; ISR, Israel; ITA, Italy; JPN, Japan; MEX, Mexico; MNG, Mongolia; PRK, North Korea; RUS, Russia; UKR, Ukraine; USA, United States of America; UZB, Uzbekistan.

Each line was planted (12 kg/10 a) at three locations; mid-north part (Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do), middle part (Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do), and south part (Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Korea with 2 replications on October 4, October 25, and October 29, respectively, in 2018. The test locations are at latitude 37° 35’ north and longitude 127° 14’ east (for Namyangju-si), latitude 35° 50’ north and longitude 127° 2’ east (for Wanju-gun), latitude 35° 12’ north and longitude 128° 7’ east (for Jinju-si).

Evaluation of agronomic traits, grain protein content, and PCR markers

Numerous agronomic traits such as days to heading, days to maturing, plant height, spike length, and yield were measured according to the instruction of National Agrobiodiversity Center of Korea. Grain protein content was measured with non- destructive NIR (near-infrared) method (Kim et al. 2016). Genetic compositions of high-molecular weight glutenin subunit seed storage proteins in each line such as Glu1-Bx (Butow et al. 2004, Ma et al. 2003), Glu1-Dx and Glu1-Dy (Liu et al. 2008), and Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g (Wang et al. 2009) were analyzed. Furthermore, either presence or absence of genes for grain properties such as grain hardness [Pina, Pinb-D1b, Pinb-D1c, and Pinb-D1d (Huang & Brûlé-Babel 2011)], polyphenol oxidase [PPO-A1a, PPO-A1b, PPO-D1a, and PPO-D1b (He et al. 2007)], and waxy [Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and Wx-D1 (Nakamura et al. 2002)] of each line were determined. Genotypes for vernalization genes Vrn [Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1 (Yan et al. 2004)] in each line was determined. The resistance genes for stem rust [Sr22 (Periyannan et al. 2011)] and leaf rust [Lr34 and Lr46 (Skowrońska et al. 2019)] were analyzed. The PCR information are listed in Supplementary Table 1.

Statistical analysis

All data analysis used in this study including correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were carried out using R program in R studio (Version 1.2.5033 - © 2009-2019 RStudio, Inc.).

Results and Discussions

Agronomic traits of selected 200 wheat germplasms at three locations in 2018-2019

National Agrobiodiversity Center maintained 22,709 wheat germplasms and investigated agronomic traits and HMW-GS (high molecular weight-glutenin subunit) compositions of 4,200 germplasms from 2015 to 2017. Among 4,200 germplasms, 200 germplasms with average heading dates earlier than May 16 and Glu-1 score from 6 to 10 were selected. Those 200 germplasms were planted in mid-north part (Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do), middle part (Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do), and south part (Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Korea.

Days to heading (DH) was taken at the period between date of sowing and date when 50% spikes were emerged in the population. The mean days to heading were 216, 189, and 179 in Namyangju-si (Gyeonggi-do), Wanju-gun (Jeollabuk-do), and Jinju-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), respectively. Days to maturity (DM) was counted from sowing to the date when more than 50% spikes turn to total loss of green color (physiological maturity). The mean DM were 254, 224, and 217, respectively, in three locations. The plant height (PH) was measured from ground to the top of stem, and the mean PH were 79.6 cm, 78 cm, and 88.6 cm in Namyangju-si, Wanju-gun, and Jinju-si, respectively. The spike length (SL) was measured from the base to the tip of the spike excluding awn. The mean SL were 10.3 cm, 9 cm, and 8.8 cm in each location. The mean grain yield (GY) were recorded about 3961 kg/ha, 3622 kg/ha, and 5822 kg/ha in three locations. The grain protein contents (GP) of germplasms were measured using NIR spectroscopy and the mean GP were 16.1%, 11.5%, and 12% in three locations, respectively. Distributions of all the studied traits of 200 germplasms are illustrated in Fig. 1 and descriptive statistics of traits are shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Descriptive statistics of agronomic traits and grain protein content for 200 germplasms in 2018-2019.


Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si
Mean 216.41 189.42 180.04 253.99 224.45 217.08 79.58 77.99 88.57
SDt 1.38 1.82 4.15 2.67 2.23 2.72 16.27 10.13 12.27
Variance 1.91 3.32 17.22 7.11 4.98 7.41 264.60 102.62 150.60
Minimum 210.00 186.00 156.00 249.00 219.00 209.00 39.67 51.00 56.00
Maximum 219.00 195.00 188.00 262.00 230.00 222.00 122.67 106.00 123.00


Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si

Mean 10.24 9.01 8.75 3960.78 3622.08 5821.90 16.07 11.54 11.99
SD 1.46 1.02 1.04 1687.10 1046.97 976.84 1.40 1.26 1.22
Variance 2.12 1.04 1.08 2846291.01 1096149.32 954224.51 1.95 1.58 1.50
Minimum 6.25 5.90 5.50 1187.50 750.00 3530.00 13.40 8.98 9.33
Maximum 14.33 12.00 11.80 8229.17 6520.83 9440.00 20.45 15.25 15.73

zDH: Days to heading, yDM: Days to maturity, xPH: Plant height (cm), wSL: Spike length (cm), vGY: Grain yield (kg/ha), uGP: Grain protein content (%) tSD: Standard deviation

Fig. 1. The distribution of evaluated traits of 200 germplasms in three locations (2018-2019). Days to heading (A), days to maturing (B), plant height (C), spike length (D), grain yield (E), grain protein content (F).

The correlation matrix (Fig. 2) among the traits showed high significant correlation (with p<0.001) among all traits except between plant height (PH) and grain protein content (GP) (not significant). The days to heading (DH) and maturing (DM) were positively correlated each other (r=0.98), and with SL (r=0.49 and r=0.50 for DH and DM, respectively) and GP (r=0.75 and r=0.78 for DH and DM, respectively), while negatively correlated with PH and GY. The analysis of variance indicated that the differences among three locations were significant (with p<0.001) for all measured traits (Table 3). Despite we selected 55 germplasms with superior agronomic traits and high grain protein contents (in following sections) across all three locations, these results indicated that some germplasms can be used as location-specific breeding materials in each location.

Table 3

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of studied traits among three locations in 2018-2019.


df MSt F df MS F df MS F
Locations 2 63545*** 8138 2 65250*** 10107 2 6402*** 38
Residuals 564 8 555 6 564 167


df MS F df MS F df MS F

Locations 2 112.5*** 82 2 274022527*** 179 2 1040*** 629
Residuals 565 1.38 550 1528474 551 2

zDH: Days to heading, yDM: Days to maturity, xPH: Plant height (cm), wSL: Spike length (cm), vGY: Grain yield (kg/ha), uGP: Grain protein content (%) tMS: Mean square

***Significant at 0.001 probability level.

Fig. 2. The correlation matrix of evaluated traits of 200 germplasms in three locations (2018-2019). The scatter plots with a fitted line are displayed on the bottom of the diagonal. The value of the correlation and the significance level as stars are displayed on the top of the diagonal. *** Significant at 0.001 probability level.

Selection of germplasm for 2019-2020 trial

We excluded germplasms having low average grain protein contents (<11%) in all three locations in 2019-2020 trial. Germplasms with late average heading date (later than May 3rd in 2018-2019 trial) except superior yielding performance were also excluded in the selection.

Since this study is conducted for employment of exotic wheat germplasms as a part of introduction breeding, the most important selection criterion was their adaptability in Korean growing environment. We selected 55 germplasms which showed yield stability, high grain protein content (GP) with superior agronomic traits, especially days to heading (DH) and grain yield (GY) in the most cultivated regions, Wanju-gun (Jeollabuk-do) and Jinju-si (Gyeongsangnam-do). The origin of countries and improvement status of 55 selected germplasm are shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Origin and developmental status of the wheat germplasms selected in 2019-2020 trial.

Originz Line developmental status Total

Landrace Breeding line Cultivar Unknown
ARG 1 1
BGR 1 1
CHN 4 9 13
IND 1 1
MEX 17 9 26
MNG 1 1
UKR 1 1
Unknown 11 11

Total 4 17 10 24 55

zCountry code. ARG, Argentina; BGR, Bulgaria; CHN, China; IND, India; MEX, Mexico; MNG, Mongolia; UKR, Ukraine.

Agronomic traits of selected 55 wheat germplasms at three locations in 2019-2020

A total of 55 selected germplasms were planted on Oct. 19, 25, and 30 in 2019 at three locations, Namyangju-si, Wanju-gun, and Jinju-si, respectively. Distributions of all the traits measurements of selected 55 germplasms are illustrated in Fig. 3 and their descriptive statistics are shown in Table 5. The mean DH and DM of selected 55 germplasms were reduced in 2019-2020 trial of Namyangju-si and Wanju-gun, compared to that of 2018-2019 trial because one of the major selection criteria was DH. The mean grain yield (GY) and grain protein content (GP) were increased in Namyangju-si and Wanju-gun. The correlation matrix among the traits of 55 selected germplasms in 2019-2020 trial is shown in Fig. 4. The DH was significantly correlated with all other traits and DM was also significantly correlated with all other traits except SL (not significant). The grain protein content (GP) was positively correlated with DH and DM for two years. These results indicate that the grain protein content is higher in the germplasms with late maturity than the germplasms with early maturity, and the germplasms that grown in the locations with late DH and DM accumulated more GP than in the germplasms that grown in the locations with early DH and DM. The analysis of variance for two years of selected 55 germplasms (Table 6) indicated that all the traits are significantly different (with p<0.001) among three locations and two years, except GY. The grain yield was significantly different among locations, while years and interaction between locations and years were not significant. The results indicate that the yield of selected 55 germplasms is mainly affected by locations and is stable through year trials.

Table 5

Descriptive statistics of agronomic traits and grain protein content for 55 selected germplasms in 2019-2020.


Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si
Mean 200.04 186.31 182.24 238.42 223.60 217.02 103.23 86.40 96.13
SDt 3.85 6.27 7.60 1.91 4.54 5.43 18.24 17.95 14.69
Variance 14.81 39.37 57.78 3.66 20.58 29.54 332.79 322.05 215.89
Minimum 193.00 176.00 168.00 235.00 218.00 208.00 76.33 63.00 64.00
Maximum 208.00 198.00 200.00 242.00 235.00 231.00 149.17 124.00 129.00


Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si Namyangju-si Wanju-gun Jinju-si

Mean 8.43 8.22 8.83 4316.1 3619.51 5716.70 17.10 12.03 10.76
SD 1.38 1.28 1.22 1195.82 961.40 1814.42 1.21 1.57 1.27
Variance 1.90 1.64 1.48 1429977 924293.40 3292128.00 1.47 2.47 1.62
Minimum 5.00 5.13 5.20 1218.75 1739.58 1813.54 14.16 9.37 8.69
Maximum 12.00 12.80 11.90 6458.33 6156.25 11728.12 20.51 17.03 13.69

zDH: Days to heading, yDM: Days to maturity, xPH: Plant height (cm), wSL: Spike length (cm), vGY: Grain yield (kg/ha), uGP: Grain protein content (%) tSD: Standard deviation

Table 6

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for traits of germplasms on three locations in two years (2018-2019 and 2019-2020).


df MSt F df MS F df MS F
Location 2 18904*** 879 2 22107*** 1809 2 2976*** 13
Year 1 1562*** 73 1 1751*** 143 1 15468*** 66
location : year 2 2522*** 117 2 2076*** 170 2 2847*** 12
Residuals 310 8 310 12 314 235


df MS F df MS F df MS F

Location 2 13*** 9 2 117508807*** 72 2 765*** 516
Year 1 58*** 37 1 5593964ns 3 1 55*** 37
location : year 2 26*** 17 2 3136344ns 2 2 43*** 29
Residuals 314 2 309 1625689 309 2

zDH: Days to heading, yDM: Days to maturity, xPH: Plant height (cm), wSL: Spike length (cm), vGY: Grain yield (kg/ha), uGP: Grain protein content (%)

tMS: Mean square

***Significant at 0.001 probability level.

nsnot significant.

Fig. 3. The distribution of evaluated traits of 55 selected germplasms in three locations (2019-2020). Days to heading (A), days to maturing (B), plant height (C), spike length (D), grain yield (E), grain protein content (F).
Fig. 4. The correlation matrix of evaluated traits of 55 selected germplasms in three locations (2019-2020). The scatter plots with a fitted line are displayed on the bottom of the diagonal. The value of the correlation and the significance level as stars are displayed on the top of the diagonal. *** Significant at 0.001 probability level. **Significant at 0.01 probability level.

Selection of germplasm for 2020-2021 trial

The selected 55 germplasms in 2019-2020 trial were the lines ranked from 1 to 55 based on the agronomic and quality performances such as DH, GY, and GP as well as field phenotyping. We selected top 70% among 55 germplasms in each location (Namyangju-si, Wanju-gun, and Jinju-si) that showed favorite agronomic performances in 2019-2020 and previous trial of 2018-2019 results. The germplasms that overlapped among locations of selected top 70% were selected as candidate germplasms for the 2020-2021 trial. The germplasms exhibited better scores in Wanju-gun and Jinju-si were given more weight values than Namyangju-si for selection.

Finally, a total of 24 germplasms were selected for 2020-2021 trial from the 3 regional tests (5 from Wanju-gun, 4 from Jinju-si, 5 from Wanju-gun & Jinju-si, 1 from Namyangju-si & Wanju-gun, 4 from Namyangju-si & Jinju-si, and 5 from all three locations) and were sown in three locations, on October in 2020 for consecutive trial. The origin of country and improvement status of selected germplasm are shown in Table 7.

Table 7

Genotyping for the targeted storage protein compositions, grain properties, and disease resistance of 24 germplasms.

Accession No. Origin Developmental Status Glu-Bx Glu-Dx Glu-Dy Glu-B3b Glu-B3g PinA PinB-D1b PinB-D1c PinB-D1d
IT275964 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - - D1a o - o
IT278241 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - o D1b - - o
IT283227 MEX Unknown 17 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291175 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291179 MEX Breeding line 17 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291181 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291202 MEX Breeding line 17 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291203 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - - - - - o
IT291205 MEX Breeding line 17 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT291270 MEX Breeding line 7 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT293490 CHN Cultivar 7 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT293492 CHN Cultivar 7 5 10 - - - o - o
IT293593 CHN Landrace 7 5 10 - o - - - o
IT293624 CHN Landrace 17 5 10 - - D1b - - o
IT297179 CHN Cultivar - 5 10 - - - - - o
IT297197 CHN Cultivar 7 5 10 - - D1a - - o
IT303293 IND Unknown 17 5 10 - o D1b - - o
IT15804 Unknown Unknown 7 5 10 - o D1a o - o
IT16857 Unknown Unknown - 5 10 - - - - - o
IT166282 Unknown Unknown - 5 10 - o D1a o - o
IT166303 Unknown Unknown - 5 10 - - - - - -
IT166350 Unknown Unknown 7 5 10 - - D1a - - -
IT166351 Unknown Unknown 7 5 10 - - D1a - - o
IT166364 Unknown Unknown 7 5 10 - - D1b - - o

Accession No. PPO-A1a PPO-A1b PPO-D1a PPO-D1b Wx-A1 Wx-B1 Wx-D1 Vrn1A Vrn1B Vrn1D Sr22 Lr34 Lr46

IT275964 - - o - o o - - - o - - -
IT278241 o - - o o o - - - - - - -
IT283227 - - - o o o - o - - - o -
IT291175 o - - o o o - o - - - - o
IT291179 - - - o o o - o o o - - o
IT291181 - - - - o o - o o o - - o
IT291202 o - o - o o - o - o - o -
IT291203 - - - - o o - o o - - o -
IT291205 o - o - o o - o - - - - -
IT291270 - - o - o o - o - o - o o
IT293490 - - o - o o - - - - - - o
IT293492 - - - - o o - o - o - - o
IT293593 - - o - o o - o o o - - o
IT293624 - - - - o o - - - - - - o
IT297179 - - - - o o - o - - - - -
IT297197 - - o o o o - o - o - - o
IT303293 - - - o o o - - - - o - o
IT15804 - - - - o o - o o - - o o
IT16857 - - - - o o - - - - - - -
IT166282 - - o - o o - o - - - - -
IT166303 - - o - o o - o - - - - -
IT166350 - - o - o o - - o o - - -
IT166351 - - o - o o - - - o - - o
IT166364 - - o o o o - o - o - - -

Among the selected 24 germplasms, some lines exhibited superior performance than others.

Three accessions (IT283227, IT293593, and IT16857) showed higher GY (from 28% to 89%) than mean GY of 24 selected germplasms among all three locations in the 2019-2020 trial. The mean DH of four accessions (IT291181, IT293624, IT166303, and IT166351) among all three locations in the 2019-2020 trial were at least one week earlier than the mean DH of 24 germplasms. Five accessions (IT291181, IT291203, IT297197, IT15804, and IT166282) had higher GP (from 12% to 19%) than mean GP of 24 selected germplasms among all three locations in the 2019-2020 trial.

The genotyping for the grain protein compositions, grain properties, disease resistance, and growth habit was carried out and the results of selected 24 germplasms are shown in Table 7. The germplasms of Glu-1 score of 6 and 7, which were investigated in the preliminary study by National Agrobiodiversity Center were discarded during selections (2018-2020) because of a heavy selection pressor for the hard wheat. Among the 24 selected germplasms, 25% (6 germplasms) were scored 8 and 75% (18 germplasms) were scored 10. Five lines (IT15804, IT166282, IT278241, IT293593, and IT303293) possess Glu-b3g allele which has been known to be associated with strong dough (Ito et al. 2011, Martínez-Cruz et al. 2011). These extra-hardy lines should be useful for making favorable quality by blending with soft/mid-hard four in the bread making industry.

As the goal of this study is to select hard wheat germplasms for adaptation in Korean production environment, we evaluated field performances and grain properties of germplasms for three consecutive years in three locations in Korea. We have experienced unusual chilling temperature during early stage of grain filling period in 2019-2020, which resulted in severe yield loss as well as reduced grain quality especially in Namyangju-si and Wanju-gun. Nevertheless, relative late or early maturity lines escaped the chilling temperature that was detrimental at the beginning of grain filling period, showed superior agronomic performances. Our results indicate that the yearly regional tests and selection based on GMS information could be an effective breeding strategy for using exotic germplasms in the breeding programs where genetic resources are limited for special quality traits.

Supplementary Data

Supplementary Table 1 is available on the journal website.


This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agri-Bio Industry Technology Development Program, funded by Mistry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (318088)

Supplementary information
Supplementary File
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